Richmond Barthé

Richmond Barthé (1901–1989) was a figurative sculptor originally from Bay St. Louis, Missouri, whose work often focused on religious subjects, prominent figures in African-American history, and entertainers. Barthé moved to Chicago in 1924 to attend the School of the Art Institute and his debut as a professional sculptor took place in the  Negro in Art Week exhibition while he was living in the city. He left Chicago for New York at the beginning of the 1930s, during the Harlem Renaissance, and lived amongst the bohemian creative circles downtown. While in New York, Barthé gained greater exposure among museums and collectors. The Whitney Museum purchased his sculpture Blackberry Woman (1930), his work was chosen to be exhibited at Chicago’s Century of Progress Exposition in 1933, and he received several honors, including a Rosenwald Fellowship (1930) and a Guggenheim Fellowship (1940). He was also the first African-American artist, along with painter Jacob Lawrence, to be represented in the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s permanent collection. In 1942, Barthé had a solo exhibition at the South Side Community Art Center. In 1947, he moved to Jamaica, where he stayed until 1960, before traveling and living briefly in Spain, Italy and Switzerland. He eventually settled in Pasadena, CA where he lived until his death in 1989.


Works in EMERGENCE are diverse in their subject matter and media, but a few themes reappear throughout. Working in abstraction or in the traditionally peaceful genre of still life, artists like William Carter, Allen Stringfellow, and Jonathan Green express themes of interiority or sociability, history or modernity. Notably, Stringfellow and Ralph Arnold both experimented with media and materials and worked extensively in collage, which allowed them to combine abstract design, figurative imagery, and on occasion political ideas.

Viewers typically expect Black artists to focus on particular aspects of their social and political identities within their work. Where might those expectations come from? Still life, abstraction, and collage may express many different things about artists’ interior lives and their visual and social observation, whether connected to public manifestations of identity or not.

William Carter’s mid-century still life Untitled presents a group of vibrantly colored bottles that invite the viewer’s gaze, set against a similarly colorful background with floral elements like grapes and leaves. They give evidence of conviviality and might be interpreted as symbols of social gatherings, but they could also just be a collection of pleasing forms. We might put Carter’s still life in dialogue with that of Jonathan Green, who became close friends with Carter while living in Chicago. Green’s close-up view of an eloquently simple composition presents oranges, a pear, and a lemon in front of two vessels. Works like this piece call the viewer to examine the objects the artist chose to include, to consider how they interact with each other like bodies in space, and to reflect on their meaning within the traditional genre of still life painting.

Collage might suggest the piecing together of identity from different components that might not usually coexist, giving room for more expansive imaginations of meaning than a straightforward representational image might allow. It could also just be an inventive way of combining colors, shapes, and textures. Allen Stringfellow’s Untitled, a collage from 1962, brings familiar motifs from still life—fruit and flowers, desserts and glassware—together with imagery of artist’s models and performers. Layered with paint and tissue paper that frustrate the viewer’s attempt to get clarity on the subject matter, the bursts of form and colors hint at the splashy abstraction of Stringfellow’s untitled, textured painting made from house paint and particulate on cardboard. Here the artist tests commonly found materials to create new textures and plays with the creation of colors and finishes that diverge from “Western” academic painting methods.

In The Waiting, Arnold constructs a large collage from different paper components, lace, and paint. In the piece, elements of European and African art are placed in dialogue with one another, while some figures appear alone and isolated, others in large groups. Without giving easy answers, Arnold implies questions about social issues. Who is waiting, and for what? In his Love Sign II, which bears the words “Love is Universal,” Arnold asserts the equal validity of all types of romantic affection and love, utilizing collage to convey a more straightforward political message.